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cacio e pepe ingredients

Few and simple ingredients...

A Roman Classic

The name of this quintessential Roman pasta dish recipe cacio e pepe means "cheese and pepper", which is highly accurate, but it is not what your pocket dictionary (if you have one) would suggest: that would be formaggio e pepe. Cacio is an alternative term used in Rome and parts of Southern Italy; such peculiarities are typical of the remarkably varied language that is Italian. The dish is distinctly Roman rather than generically Italian; it is considered one of the four classic Roman pasta preparations. Its simplicity is very much an expression of the long history of a city that has usually had a mostly poor population, its cuisine based on the produce of the surrounding regions.

The Pantheon in Rome at night

There are many reasons to see Rome – the city’s traditional cuisine is one of them.

The first encounter with cacio e pepe is often rather surprising for many. What many Italian restaurants in in the Western World have tended to serve is pasta drenched in a sauce, usually red, with the main theme being the sauce, and variation usually attempted by adding various ingredients to the sauce.

So, Roman pasta dishes are often something of a revelation. A classic like cacio e pepe surprises by its lack of a suffocating sauce and its emphasis on the pasta and cheese as the main ingredients, deftly assisted by the other elements - so few of them, so simple and so well balanced. It is nothing like the pasta dishes many people know: superb in its stark simplicity and its easy reliance on high-quality components.

A caveat and a few words on the main ingredients

We should, of course, stress one thing: there is no consensus even in Rome as to the definitive cacio e pepe recipe - in fact, there is no such thing. The issue appears to be a little controversial... So, what follows here cannot claim to be canonical; it is simply a workable, simple and delicious version, based on a friend's instructions.

Authentic Pecorino Romano cheese

Irreplaceable: authentic Pecorino Romano.

In the case of cacio e pepe, there are two key ingredients to look out for: the pasta and the cheese.

In Rome, the dish most typically uses tonnarelli, an egg pasta shaped more or less like spaghetti and native to the region of Lazio near Rome. If you can't source tonnarelli, you might be able to find spaghetti alla chitarra from the Abruzzo area. If all else fails, just use high quality spaghetti.

Even more important is the cheese. Either all or no less than half of it must be Pecorino Romano, the most traditional of Rome's cheeses, descended from local sheep's milk cheeses already produced 2,000 years ago and carried by Roman legionaries as part of their daily ration. Today, most Pecorino Romano is made on nearby Sardinia, but it is not to be confused with Pecorino Sardo! Pecorino Romano is hard, somewhat brittle, salty, a little spicy and has a lemony note. It is advisable to use a Pecorino that has been aged for at least six months. Some versions, such as ours below, also use Parmigiano-Reggiano (Parmesan).

In any case, we highly recommend using the authentic Italian cheeses, not local "equivalents", if at all possible. If that's not an option, use "Italian-style" yellow cheese, preferably hard and with a high salt content.

Cacio e Pepe – recipe

Serves 4


pepper, coarsely crushed ready to use

The other name-giving ingredient: pepper, coarsely crushed.

500g (18oz) pasta (ideally tonnarelli, but spaghetti alla chitarra or simple spaghetti also work, see above)

125g (4.5 oz) aged Pecorino Romano, grated

75g (2.5 oz) Parmigiano-Reggiano, grated

5 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil

1.5 tablespoons black peppercorns, coarsely crushed in a mortar

Salt to taste


1.In a large saucepan, prepare the pasta water: salt generously and don't use any oil (it is important for this dish that the cheese sauce attaches itself to the surface of the pasta). Set to a high heat.

2. While the pasta water is heating up, pour the olive oil into another mid-sized to large saucepan over low to medium heat. Add the crushed peppercorns, stir and let them fry for a few minutes. Eventually, stir in 125ml (half a cup) of hot water - you can use some of the pasta water, then turn the heat off (or to its lowest possible level).

stirring cheese and pasta water into the pasta

The most sensitive part of the process: step 6, stirring cheese and pasta water into the pasta.

3. As soon as the pasta water is boiling, add the pasta. Time it for 2 minutes less than the recommended cooking time.

4. Once that time has elapsed, drain the pasta or remove it from the water - but make sure not to dispose of the pasta water yet! With the starch from the pasta suspended in it, it still has a major role to play in this dish...

5. Add the pasta to the saucepan with the oil-pepper mixture and stir constantly over a low heat until the water has evaporated.

6. Immediately, add 2 large tablespoons of each of the grated cheeses and continue stirring. If the mixture looks dry, add a spoon or two of the pasta water and stir on. Once all is smooth, repeat, adding cheese, and pasta water as needed, and stirring all the time. Continue until all the cheese has been used up. This step is the most important one: what you are aiming for is a thick and creamy coating, with no lumps, evenly attached to all of the pasta.

7. Add salt and ground pepper to taste (probably none will be needed) and serve with no delay. A light green salad is a fit accompaniment. There is no need for grated cheese!

We hope you enjoy this deceptively simple recipe. Even better, please consider eating it in Rome itself and join our Exploring Rome tour!

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